PERSONAL SUBJECT PRONOUNS
In Italian there are (4) singular subject pronouns and (3) plural. Personal subject pronouns are usually dropped as the conjugation is usually enough to determine the grammatical person. They are used when some emphasis is needed or if the subject remains unclear.
|lui / lei||he / she|
In English, the definite article has only one form, “the”. In Italian, it has different forms according to the gender, number, and first letter of the noun or adjective it precedes.
The Italian indefinite article corresponds to the English “a/an” and is used with singular nouns.
* used for all words beginning with a vowel.
** used for masculine words beginning with s + consonant, z, and (less often seen) gn, pn, ps, y.
The Italian infinitive (l’infinito) verb is simply a verb in its most basic form, without any changes to it. The infinitives of all regular verbs in Italian end in -are, -ere, or -ire and consist of one word (NOT two as in English):
- mangiare (to eat)
- vivere (to live)
- dormire (to sleep)
Here are the present tense conjugation tables for the (3) infinitive verbs learned in this initial lesson, as they relate to the aforementioned personal subject pronouns.
|essere (to be)|
|tu||sei||you (sing.) are|
|voi||siete||you (pl.) are|
|mangiare (to eat)|
|tu||mangi||you (sing.) eat|
|voi||mangiate||you (pl.) eat|
|bere (to drink)|
|tu||bevi||you (sing.) drink|
|voi||bevete||you (pl.) drink|