(by DuoItalian)

The plural definite articles (the) are:

  • gli – for masculine plural nouns that start with vowels, s + consonant, z, y, gn, pn, ps.
  • i – for masculine plural nouns in all other cases.
  • le – for feminine plural nouns.

The Italian irregular verb strays from the normal methods of conjugation and has no logical pattern at all.

The verbs essere (to be) and avere (to have) are the most frequently utilized irregular verbs in the present tense, but there are also a number of others that are often used in the present tense.

  • dire (to say, tell)
  • dare (to give)
  • venire (to come)
  • andare (to go)
  • volere (to want)
  • potere (to be able to, can)
  • dovere (to have to, must)

Looking at the verb conjugations below as examples, you will notice that leggere and scrivere are considered ‘regular’ verbs and that avere is most definitely an ‘irregular‘ verb.

Here are the present tense conjugation tables for the (3) verbs learned in this initial lesson, as they relate to the aforementioned personal subject pronouns.

leggere (to read)
ioleggoI read
tuleggiyou (sing.) read
lui/leileggehe/she/it reads
noileggiamowe read
voileggeteyou (pl.) read
loroleggonothey read
scrivere (to write)
ioscrivoI write
tuscriviyou (sing.) write
lui/leiscrivehe/she/it writes
noiscriviamowe write
voiscriveteyou (pl.) write
loroscrivonothey write
avere (to have)
iohoI have
tuhaiyou (sing.) have
lui/leihahe/she/it has
noiabbiamowe have
voiaveteyou (pl.) have
lorohannothey have

(from Duolingo)
i ragazziboys
gli uominimen
le ragazzegirls
le donnewomen
il librobook
il giornalenewspaper
leggere to read
scrivere to write
avere to have


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